I am making a NW.js app on Mac, and want to run the app in dev mode by double-clicking on an icon. First step, I’m trying to make my shell script work.
Using VSCode on Windows (I wanted to gain time), I have created a
run-nw file at the root of my project, containing this:
#!/bin/bash cd "src" npm install cd .. ./tools/nwjs-sdk-v0.17.3-osx-x64/nwjs.app/Contents/MacOS/nwjs "src" &
but I get this output:
$ sh ./run-nw : command not found : No such file or directory : command not found : No such file or directory Usage: npm <command> where <command> is one of: (snip commands list) (snip npm help) [email protected] /usr/local/lib/node_modules/npm : command not found : No such file or directory : command not found
I really don’t understand:
- it seems that it takes empty lines as commands. In my editor (VSCode) I have tried to replace
\n(in case the
\rcreates problems) but it changes nothing.
- it seems that it doesn’t find the folders (with or without the
dirnameinstruction), or maybe it doesn’t know about the
- it seems that it doesn’t understand the
- the part that really weirds me out, is that it still runs the app (if I did a
Not able to make it work properly, and suspecting something weird with the file itself, I created a new one directly on the Mac, using vim this time. I entered the exact same instructions, and… now it works without any issue.
A diff on the two files reveals exactly zero difference.
What can be the difference? What can make the first script not work? How can I find out?
Following the accepted answer’s recommendations, after the wrong line endings came back, I checked multiple things. It turns out that since I copied my
~/.gitconfig from my Windows machine, I had
autocrlf=true, so every time I modified the bash file under Windows, it re-set the line endings to
So, in addition to running
dos2unix (which you will have to install using Homebrew on a Mac), if you’re using Git, check your config.
Yes. Bash scripts are sensitive to line-endings, both in the script itself and in data it processes. They should have Unix-style line-endings, i.e., each line is terminated with a Line Feed character (decimal 10, hex 0A in ASCII).
DOS/Windows line endings in the script
With Windows or DOS-style line endings , each line is terminated with a Carriage Return followed by a Line Feed character. You can see this otherwise invisible character in the output of
cat -v yourfile:
$ cat -v yourfile #!/bin/bash^M ^M cd "src"^M npm install^M ^M cd ..^M ./tools/nwjs-sdk-v0.17.3-osx-x64/nwjs.app/Contents/MacOS/nwjs "src" &^M
In this case, the carriage return (
^M in caret notation or
\r in C escape notation) is not treated as whitespace. Bash interprets the first line after the shebang (consisting of a single carriage return character) as the name of a command/program to run.
- Since there is no command named
^M, it prints
: command not found
- Since there is no directory named
src^M), it prints
: No such file or directory
- It passes
installas an argument to
DOS/Windows line endings in input data
Like above, if you have an input file with carriage returns:
then it will look completely normal in editors and when writing it to screen, but tools may produce strange results. For example,
grep will fail to find lines that are obviously there:
$ grep 'hello$' file.txt || grep -x "hello" file.txt (no match because the line actually ends in ^M)
Appended text will instead overwrite the line because the carriage returns moves the cursor to the start of the line:
$ sed -e 's/$/!/' file.txt !ello !orld
String comparison will seem to fail, even though strings appear to be the same when writing to screen:
$ a="hello"; read b < file.txt $ if [[ "$a" = "$b" ]] then echo "Variables are equal." else echo "Sorry, $a is not equal to $b" fi Sorry, hello is not equal to hello
The solution is to convert the file to use Unix-style line endings. There are a number of ways this can be accomplished:
This can be done using the
Open the file in a capable text editor (Sublime, Notepad++, not Notepad) and configure it to save files with Unix line endings, e.g., with Vim, run the following command before (re)saving:
If you have a version of the
sedutility that supports the
--in-placeoption, e.g., GNU
sed, you could run the following command to strip trailing carriage returns:
sed -i 's/\r$//' filename
With other versions of
sed, you could use output redirection to write to a new file. Be sure to use a different filename for the redirection target (it can be renamed later).
sed 's/\r$//' filename > filename.unix
trtranslation filter can be used to delete unwanted characters from its input:
tr -d '\r' <filename >filename.unix
With the Bash port for Cygwin, there’s a custom
igncr option that can be set to ignore the Carriage Return in line endings (presumably because many of its users use native Windows programs to edit their text files).
This can be enabled for the current shell by running
set -o igncr.
Setting this option applies only to the current shell process so it can be useful when sourcing files with extraneous carriage returns. If you regularly encounter shell scripts with DOS line endings and want this option to be set permanently, you could set an environment variable called
SHELLOPTS (all capital letters) to include
igncr. This environment variable is used by Bash to set shell options when it starts (before reading any startup files).
file utility is useful for quickly seeing which line endings are used in a text file. Here’s what it prints for for each file type:
- Unix line endings:
Bourne-Again shell script, ASCII text executable
- Mac line endings:
Bourne-Again shell script, ASCII text executable, with CR line terminators
- DOS line endings:
Bourne-Again shell script, ASCII text executable, with CRLF line terminators
The GNU version of the
cat utility has a
-v, --show-nonprinting option that displays non-printing characters.
dos2unix utility is specifically written for converting text files between Unix, Mac and DOS line endings.
Wikipedia has an excellent article covering the many different ways of marking the end of a line of text, the history of such encodings and how newlines are treated in different operating systems, programming languages and Internet protocols (e.g., FTP).
Files with classic Mac OS line endings
With Classic Mac OS (pre-OS X), each line was terminated with a Carriage Return (decimal 13, hex 0D in ASCII). If a script file was saved with such line endings, Bash would only see one long line like so:
#!/bin/bash^M^Mcd "src"^Mnpm install^M^Mcd ..^M./tools/nwjs-sdk-v0.17.3-osx-x64/nwjs.app/Contents/MacOS/nwjs "src" &^M
Since this single long line begins with an octothorpe (
#), Bash treats the line (and the whole file) as a single comment.
Note: In 2001, Apple launched Mac OS X which was based on the BSD-derived NeXTSTEP operating system. As a result, OS X also uses Unix-style LF-only line endings and since then, text files terminated with a CR have become extremely rare. Nevertheless, I think it’s worthwhile to show how Bash would attempt to interpret such files.
On JetBrains products (PyCharm, PHPStorm, IDEA, etc.), you’ll need to click on
LF to toggle between the two types of line separators (
If you’re using the
read command to read from a file (or pipe) that is (or might be) in DOS/Windows format, you can take advantage of the fact that
read will trim whitespace from the beginning and ends of lines. If you tell it that carriage returns are whitespace (by adding them to the
IFS variable), it’ll trim them from the ends of lines.
In bash (or zsh or ksh), that means you’d replace this standard idiom:
IFS= read -r somevar # This will not trim CR
IFS=$'\r' read -r somevar # This *will* trim CR
-r option isn’t related to this, it’s just usually a good idea to avoid mangling backslashes.)
If you’re not using the
IFS= prefix (e.g. because you want to split the data into fields), then you’d replace this:
read -r field1 field2 ... # This will not trim CR
IFS=$' \t\n\r' read -r field1 field2 ... # This *will* trim CR
If you’re using a shell that doesn’t support the
$'...' quoting mode (e.g. dash, the default /bin/sh on some Linux distros), or your script even might be run with such a shell, then you need to get a little more complex:
cr="$(printf '\r')" IFS="$cr" read -r somevar # Read trimming *only* CR IFS="$IFS$cr" read -r field1 field2 ... # Read trimming CR and whitespace, and splitting fields
Note that normally, when you change
IFS, you should put it back to normal as soon as possible to avoid weird side effects; but in all these cases, it’s a prefix to the
read command, so it only affects that one command and doesn’t have to be reset afterward.