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Flexbox: center horizontally and vertically

881

How to center div horizontally, and vertically within the container using flexbox. In below example, I want each number below each other (in rows), which are centered horizontally.

.flex-container {
  padding: 0;
  margin: 0;
  list-style: none;
  display: flex;
  align-items: center;
  justify-content: center;
}
row {
  width: 100%;
}
.flex-item {
  background: tomato;
  padding: 5px;
  width: 200px;
  height: 150px;
  margin: 10px;
  line-height: 150px;
  color: white;
  font-weight: bold;
  font-size: 3em;
  text-align: center;
}
<div class="flex-container">
  <div class="row">
    <span class="flex-item">1</span>
  </div>
  <div class="row">
    <span class="flex-item">2</span>
  </div>
  <div class="row">
    <span class="flex-item">3</span>
  </div>
  <div class="row">
    <span class="flex-item">4</span>
  </div>
</div>

http://codepen.io/anon/pen/zLxBo

1

  • 1

    In your CSS you have row{ which has no effect on rows. If you change it to .row{ the result would be totally different.

    Oct 20, 2019 at 13:26

960

I think you want something like the following.

html, body {
    height: 100%;
}
body {
    margin: 0;
}
.flex-container {
    height: 100%;
    padding: 0;
    margin: 0;
    display: flex;
    align-items: center;
    justify-content: center;
}
.row {
    width: auto;
    border: 1px solid blue;
}
.flex-item {
    background-color: tomato;
    padding: 5px;
    width: 20px;
    height: 20px;
    margin: 10px;
    line-height: 20px;
    color: white;
    font-weight: bold;
    font-size: 2em;
    text-align: center;
}
<div class="flex-container">
    <div class="row"> 
        <div class="flex-item">1</div>
        <div class="flex-item">2</div>
        <div class="flex-item">3</div>
        <div class="flex-item">4</div>
    </div>
</div>

See demo at: http://jsfiddle.net/audetwebdesign/tFscL/

Your .flex-item elements should be block level (div instead of span) if you want the height and top/bottom padding to work properly.

Also, on .row, set the width to auto instead of 100%.

Your .flex-container properties are fine.

If you want the .row to be centered vertically in the view port, assign 100% height to html and body, and also zero out the body margins.

Note that .flex-container needs a height to see the vertical alignment effect, otherwise, the container computes the minimum height needed to enclose the content, which is less than the view port height in this example.

Footnote:
The flex-flow, flex-direction, flex-wrap properties could have made this design easier to implement. I think that the .row container is not needed unless you want to add some styling around the elements (background image, borders and so on).

A useful resource is: http://demo.agektmr.com/flexbox/

9

  • 6

    Flex items do not need to be block level unless the content they contain requires it. Also, you’ve prefixed all of the display properties, but didn’t prefix any of the other Flexbox properties (which have different names in the other drafts).

    – cimmanon

    Sep 26, 2013 at 14:32

  • 1

    @cimmanon I agree about with you about block level, and I edited my post accordingly. Block level is not required for alignment but may be needed if the user wants to specify height and so on. I took liberty about the browser prefixes, I just assumed a perfect browser for the sake of arriving at a working demo. Thank you again for your comment, appreciate the feedback.

    Sep 26, 2013 at 14:57


  • 1

    If it overflows, it crops the top. i.imgur.com/3dgFfQK.png Any way to avoid this?

    Sep 4, 2014 at 20:00

  • 1

    @BrianGates If the height of the window is too short, how do you want the 4 elements to be displays, 2×2, 1×4?

    Sep 5, 2014 at 11:38

  • 2

    Solution is here: stackoverflow.com/questions/24538100/…

    Sep 5, 2014 at 22:19

317

How to Center Elements Vertically and Horizontally in Flexbox

Below are two general centering solutions.

One for vertically-aligned flex items (flex-direction: column) and the other for horizontally-aligned flex items (flex-direction: row).

In both cases the height of the centered divs can be variable, undefined, unknown, whatever. The height of the centered divs doesn’t matter.

Here’s the HTML for both:

<div id="container"><!-- flex container -->

    <div class="box" id="bluebox"><!-- flex item -->
        <p>DIV #1</p>
    </div>

    <div class="box" id="redbox"><!-- flex item -->
        <p>DIV #2</p>
    </div>

</div>

CSS (excluding decorative styles)

When flex items are stacked vertically:

#container {
    display: flex;           /* establish flex container */
    flex-direction: column;  /* make main axis vertical */
    justify-content: center; /* center items vertically, in this case */
    align-items: center;     /* center items horizontally, in this case */
    height: 300px;
}

.box {
    width: 300px;
    margin: 5px;
    text-align: center;     /* will center text in <p>, which is not a flex item */
}

enter image description here

DEMO


When flex items are stacked horizontally:

Adjust the flex-direction rule from the code above.

#container {
    display: flex;
    flex-direction: row;     /* make main axis horizontal (default setting) */
    justify-content: center; /* center items horizontally, in this case */
    align-items: center;     /* center items vertically, in this case */
    height: 300px;
}

enter image description here

DEMO


Centering the content of the flex items

The scope of a flex formatting context is limited to a parent-child relationship. Descendants of a flex container beyond the children do not participate in flex layout and will ignore flex properties. Essentially, flex properties are not inheritable beyond the children.

Hence, you will always need to apply display: flex or display: inline-flex to a parent element in order to apply flex properties to the child.

In order to vertically and/or horizontally center text or other content contained in a flex item, make the item a (nested) flex container, and repeat the centering rules.

.box {
    display: flex;
    justify-content: center;
    align-items: center;        /* for single line flex container */
    align-content: center;      /* for multi-line flex container */
}

More details here: How to vertically align text inside a flexbox?

Alternatively, you can apply margin: auto to the content element of the flex item.

p { margin: auto; }

Learn about flex auto margins here: Methods for Aligning Flex Items (see box#56).


Centering multiple lines of flex items

When a flex container has multiple lines (due to wrapping) the align-content property will be necessary for cross-axis alignment.

From the spec:

8.4. Packing Flex Lines: the align-content
property

The align-content property aligns a flex container’s lines within the
flex container when there is extra space in the cross-axis, similar to
how justify-content aligns individual items within the main-axis.
Note, this property has no effect on a single-line flex container.

More details here: How does flex-wrap work with align-self, align-items and align-content?


Browser support

Flexbox is supported by all major browsers, except IE < 10. Some recent browser versions, such as Safari 8 and IE10, require vendor prefixes. For a quick way to add prefixes use Autoprefixer. More details in this answer.


Centering solution for older browsers

For an alternative centering solution using CSS table and positioning properties see this answer: https://stackoverflow.com/a/31977476/3597276

5

  • 1

    can we do it horizontally right, left and vertically center?

    – kapil

    Feb 28, 2017 at 12:28

  • 2

    @kapil, adjust the justify-content property to space-between or space-aroundjsfiddle.net/8o29y7pd/105

    Feb 28, 2017 at 12:54

  • 6

    This answer should be up on top. Using Flex should be the preferred way for doing this, since it scales nicely across devices and screen. Its far more easier than using floats and managing multiple divs adhere to that.

    Nov 10, 2017 at 9:33

  • Ie 11 is not working properly horizontal and vertical center

    – giveJob

    Mar 14, 2019 at 12:02

  • 1

    thank you for noting that child elements are not automatically flex items. We need to cater to them if we want them to be.

    – klewis

    Oct 13, 2020 at 10:29

54

Add

.container {
    display: flex;
    justify-content: center;
    align-items: center;
}

to the container element of whatever you want to center. Documentation:
justify-content and
align-items.

0