What is the implementation of GCC’s (4.6+)
__builtin_clz? Does it correspond to some CPU instruction on Intel
It should translate to a Bit Scan Reverse instruction and a subtract. The BSR gives the index of the leading 1, and then you can subtract that from the word size to get the number of leading zeros.
Edit: if your CPU supports LZCNT (Leading Zero Count), then that will probably do the trick too, but not all x86-64 chips have that instruction.